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January 8, 2003

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Task force makes realistic tuition proposal
Funds sought to honor Wellstone
Employees must change Onyen passwords
Learfield to continue producing videos
Leloudis: 'Hold fast to your dreams'

Expert on Russia finds people friendly, history complex in former Soviet Union
ArtiFACTS: Susan Graham Memorial Fountain

Task force makes realistic
tuition proposal

The Student Tuition Task Force had been at it since summer, airing philosophies and establishing priorities for which campus needs should be addressed with revenues generated from a campus-based tuition increase.

The only thing left to be done at the last meeting, held Dec. 19, was to iron out the final numbers. But at that meeting the committee instead decided that the time was not right to put forward a tuition increase recommendation because of the current economic climate.

The Carolina panel's move followed a UNC Board of Governors committee's proposal, for the same reason, to freeze tuition increases within the UNC system for fall of 2003. The full board is expected to vote on that recommendation Jan. 10.

While recognizing that the timing wasn't right to increase tuition, the Carolina task force decided to go ahead and make a recommendation to be considered at an appropriate time, given that members had put so much effort into developing one.

The co-chairs of the committee, Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost Robert Shelton and Student Body President Jen Daum, argued that the task force had worked too hard and thought too carefully about the issue to end the process by doing nothing.

Daum said that the committee had put too much work into establishing the needs that added tuition revenue could help meet not to come forward with a recommendation. To worry about it when the time comes would result in another group having to reconvene at some point in the future and start the process all over again. It would be better, she argued, to offer a recommendation based on months of careful study.

In the end, the task force opted to recommend increasing tuition by $350 for each of three years. When fully implemented, such an increase would generate an estimated $23.9 million.

In light of the Board of Governors' anticipated freeze on tuition, the recommendation will not be forwarded to the University's Board of Trustees for action. Instead, the recommendation will be forwarded to Chancellor James Moeser for his acceptance, with the understanding that implementation would be delayed until an appropriate time.

The task force, which was comprised of professors, administrators, staff and students, had been working on its proposals for four months.

Shelton said nothing about the process was easy. "We are not tackling this issue because we want to raise the cost of education," he said. "We are doing it in order to preserve the quality of education this University can offer - while protecting access."

In its final statement, the task force identified four factors that were taken into account in reaching its decision.

First, the group looked at Carolina's "ability to remain accessible to all qualified North Carolinians while providing an unparalleled educational experience."

Second, it remained faithful to "our goal to remain in the lowest quartile for resident tuition among our peer institutions."

Third, it looked at the need to "remain competitive with our peer institutions in recruiting and retaining the highest quality faculty, graduate and professional students, and undergraduate students."

Finally, the group emphasized its belief that "campus-based tuition increases cannot compensate for consistent, predictable and adequate funding from the State."

The task force set aside 40 percent of additional revenues from any tuition increase for need-based aid, in keeping with the same commitment previous groups have made to ensure access.

To help close the faculty salary gap with peer institutions, the task force recommended that 48 percent of additional revenues (an estimated $11.5 million) go to improve faculty pay at Carolina.

Task force members also felt that Carolina's ability to attract graduate students could be harmed by a lack of competitive stipends for graduate teaching assistants and recommended using 8 percent of revenues (an estimated $1.9 million over three years) to make stipends more competitive.

Task force members also debated the question of whether any part of tuition increases should be devoted to improving the pay of staff members because they received no raises this year and may not next year either.

While several students argued against the move, saying staff should be valued but their pay should be a state responsibility, the task force endorsed putting 4 percent of revenues toward staff salaries. The cumulative total over three years would be an estimated $900,000.

That recommendation would send two messages, members said.

First, it would signal that administrators and faculty members appreciate staff members' work and recognize that the pay they earn is not equal to the contributions they make. The second message would be to remind legislators of the urgency of the situation. Even if the Board of Governors and the legislature reject the idea of using tuition to pay staff employees, they will see that they need to do more.

Even with recent campus-based tuition increases, statistics show that the cost of a Carolina education remains relatively low. That point was emphasized in the October issue of "Kiplinger's", which placed Carolina at the top of its rankings for best bargains in 2002 as it had in 1998 and 2000.

This year, in-state undergraduate students pay a little more than $3,800 in tuition and fees.

Funds sought to honor Wellstone

A Carolina professor and a dean are seeking a memorial on campus to the late Sen. Paul Wellstone, a two-time Carolina alumnus who died in a plane crash Oct. 25.

Joel Schwartz, an adjunct professor of public policy and professor emeritus of political science, and Gene Nichol, law school dean, hope to raise $25,000 for a group of benches. A potential site for the benches is beside the recently renovated Murphey Hall, which houses the classics department on Polk Place.

Wellstone, a former student of Schwartz's and good friend of both professors, received his bachelor's and doctoral degrees in political science from Carolina. After graduating, Wellstone accepted a position at Carleton College in Northfield, Minn., where he was a professor of political science from 1969 to 1990. In 1990, he was elected to the U.S. Senate.

Wellstone credited Schwartz with inspiring him to become a political science professor. He also had strong ties to Nichol and had campaigned in support of Nichol's unsuccessful campaign for a U.S. Senate seat from Colorado.

The tragic crash last October also took the lives of Wellstone's wife, Sheila, and daughter, Marcia, three campaign staffers and two pilots.

"The massive and spontaneous outpouring of grief that the senator's death and the deaths of the others with him evoked is a testament to the influence one person can have," Schwartz said. "It would be appropriate to establish a memorial to honor Senator Wellstone on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus. Paul was always proud that he was a graduate of this university."

Schwartz and Nichol said they see the benches as a fitting memorial for Wellstone, who believed that "we need to replace isolationism with fellowship. [That] we need to talk about community, about justice, about the goodness of America."

Similar groups of benches have been installed at Carolina recently in response to a recommendation from a task force the late Chancellor Michael Hooker formed to study the intellectual climate on campus. The task force wanted to recreate the environment that existed on campus in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, when benches were scattered around the campus, providing inviting sites for discussion.

"The Senator Paul D. Wellstone Memorial would be a place where we can sit and talk, a place of fellowship and conversation where ideas and opinions can be exchanged," Schwartz said. "It would be here for us to visit for generations."

Said Nichol, "Paul Wellstone taught us, more effectively than anyone, that politics is `about improving people's lives,' and he thought Carolina had a similar mission."

For more information, refer to www.unc.edu/depts/polisci/news_items/2002/ wellstone.html. For more information on benches at Carolina, see intlife.unc.edu/benches/.

How to contribute
To contribute to the Paul Wellstone memorial, please make checks payable to UNC-Chapel Hill with "Wellstone Benches" in the memo line. Mail them to Andi Sobbe, Development Office, CB# 6100.

Donations also may be made by credit card online at www.webslingerz.com/uncdev/cc_gift.html. In the "Designate Your Gift" section, select "other." Under "other instructions," type "Wellstone Benches." Call 962-2546 for more information.

Employees must change
Onyen passwords

In a move to keep campus computers secure, Information Technology Services (ITS) is requiring Carolina faculty, staff and students periodically to change their "Onyen" (Only name you'll ever need) passwords. The Onyen is used to access many campus technology services.

Those who allow their passwords to expire will be unable to use services that require Onyen authentication, including the campus e-mail system, Blackboard, DHCP campus network registration and Faculty/Staff Central.

Employees and students will need to get into the habit of changing their passwords every 90 days. According to Jeanne Smythe, director of computing policy in ITS, leaving Onyen passwords unchanged exposes the user's account to various misuses.

"Every day," Smythe said, "we see brute-force attempts at password guessing, and every semester we have account abuse problems due to knowledgeable insiders guessing or discovering Onyen passwords.

"Periodically changing passwords mitigates the risk of identity theft and other similar problems."

For more information or assistance in changing your Onyen password, contact your departmental technical support staff. You can also call 962-HELP for assistance or submit a help request via the web by going to help.unc.edu and selecting "Submit/Update a Help Request" on the top right of the page.

Learfield to continue producing videos

Carolina has agreed to a nine-year contractual extension granting the athletic department's multimedia rights to Learfield Communications Inc. of Jefferson City, Mo. Learfield has produced radio, television, game program and Internet packages for Carolina athletics since it purchased the contract from Vilcom in 1998.

A component of the agreement is that Learfield will pay for the purchase and installation of a video highlights board and public address/sound system in Kenan Stadium. Learfield's costs for the video board, scheduled to be installed prior to commencement in May, are $600,000 for the board and $1.4 million for initial installation.

Learfield also will pay the athletic department an annual rights fee of $2.5 million per year, beginning this year. That is an increase of $500,000 per year from the previous contract and will total an extra $4.5 million over the nine years.

The additional $500,000 per year will go to the athletic department budget to help deal with issues such as adherence to Title IX and operating budgets.

"The board is just one aspect of an overall excellent financial package," said Director of Athletics Dick Baddour. "It is corporately financed by Learfield; no money is coming from state or academic interests nor is this a matter of a reallocation of those resources. This is new money generated from the sale of video spots. It is important for us to identify new revenue sources in these challenging economic conditions."

The nine-year extension took effect in December. Carolina and Learfield had been in the final year of a five-year agreement. The stipulations of the new agreement go into effect for the remainder of this fiscal year and then for eight more years. The agreement concludes on June 30, 2011.

Besides the $2.5 million annual rights fee, Learfield agreed to pay an additional fee at a rate of 50 percent of the gross receipts in excess of $5.5 million. The previous contract called for Carolina to receive 15 percent of gross receipts beyond a pre-established threshold.

"We are pleased to extend our association with Clyde Lear and his staff at Learfield for another eight-plus years," Baddour said. "Learfield is a national leader in sports communications. We are proud to be associated with them and proud they are excited about continuing a relationship with the Tar Heels.

"The multimedia contract is vital to the growth and stability of the athletic department. It provides us with quality programming, outstanding marketing opportunities and a critical revenue stream. It is only one piece of the revenue puzzle, but an important one."

The video board in Kenan Stadium and the ones now being used in the Dean E. Smith Center will feature University-related content, including features on faculty, student achievement, academic departments and public service to the state. Any sponsorships will be limited to a sponsor's logo -- company slogans or other advertising will be prohibited. Learfield also may sell sponsorship of game action replays, although only the sponsor's logo can be displayed.

"We can show highlight replays from current and previous games and profiles on student-athletes, as well as the University's teaching, research and public service programs," said Norwood Teague, associate director of athletics for marketing. "The video board gives us an opportunity to showcase the physics department, the libraries or any other academic topic to an audience of 60,000 of our constituents. We can highlight some of the University's most talented students and faculty who may otherwise not be as well known to our fans."

The video board was to have been installed prior to the 2002 football season, but was postponed by Baddour and Chancellor James Moeser.

Leloudis: 'Hold fast to your dreams'

Editor's note: Following are the prepared remarks for the Dec. 20 mid-year commencement address by Carolina's James Leloudis, associate professor of history, associate dean for honors and director of the James M. Johnston Center for Undergraduate Excellence.

Chancellor Moeser, distinguished members of the platform party, parents and guests: Good afternoon. And to the Class of 2002: Congratulations! You worked hard to get into Carolina, and we have worked you even harder to get out. This is your day. Celebrate and enjoy!

Protocol requires that I, like every commencement speaker, begin by acknowledging what an honor it is to have been invited to deliver this address. But I want to reach beyond protocol, because this is, indeed, a very special day for me. Twenty-five years ago, I sat in your seat -- like you, stylin' in one of those Carolina blue gowns. Who would have thought that I would be standing here today? Certainly not me. And if truth be told, some of my professors might also be counted among the doubters -- especially the one, who to this day, reminds me of the not-so-distinguished grade that I earned in his class.

I also want you to know how effectively you've turned the table on one of your teachers. You have given me one of the most daunting assignments I could ever imagine. Think for a moment about the situation. Here I stand in front of my faculty colleagues, a number of whom were also my undergraduate teachers. Here I stand before you, many of whom are former students. And what is my assignment? To convey wisdom that will guide you through life, to share insights that will stay with you beyond tomorrow's morning news. And all of that in the span of 15 minutes! I've taken a few wicked final exams in my day -- I'm told that I've even given a few -- but this is in a category all its own. You can't imagine what I'd give right now for a blue book or bubble sheet!

But here I am. The task is at hand. And so, let me be about it.

A world divided
What wisdom can I offer that has not been offered more eloquently by many others before me? Probably none. So let me speak from the heart and invite you to reflect on some concerns that preoccupy my thoughts these days.

First, the times in which we live. You are headed into the world at a particularly challenging, exhilarating and difficult moment. Yes, the economy is in a downturn and jobs are scarce -- you hardly need for me to deliver that news bulletin -- but the challenges I have in mind are on a larger scale. Our world is shrinking, we are being brought ever closer together by new global instruments of communication and trade, yet, in many respects, we live more divergent lives than ever.

Jimmy Carter noted last week in his Nobel Peace Prize address that "citizens of the 10 wealthiest countries are now 75 times richer than those who live in the 10 poorest ones, and the separation is increasing every year." The human reality of that divide was revealed in a recent poll conducted by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. In Africa, Latin American and Russia, overwhelming majorities of respondents to the survey said that there have been times in the past year when they could not afford to feed their families or to pay for clothing and health care. Only in industrialized nations like ours were reports of doing without the basics of life limited to a distinct minority of the population.

This disparity is at the root of many of the world's most vexing problems, including starvation, illiteracy, environmental degradation, violent conflict and the unnecessary illnesses that each year take the lives of six million children. The Pew survey revealed that here in the United States, we worry most about the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and more generally, terrorism, as the leading threats to the world. But in Africa, where in some nations the AIDS epidemic has taken hold of nearly a third of the population, fully 98 percent of respondents report that their number one concern is the spread of disease -- something far down the list for most Americans. We inhabit the same shrinking planet, but we are living exceedingly different lives. And too often, we understand very little of one another's experiences.

Much the same might also be said right here, in our own back yard. The recent report of the Rural Prosperity Task Force makes clear that we are increasingly two North Carolinas. One North Carolina centered here in the Piedmont, urban, riding the wave of the new economy, relatively rich with opportunity and resources for its schools and communities. The other North Carolina predominantly rural, wrestling with the decline of traditional industries, often finding prosperity just beyond arm's reach.

The demand of dreams
Such challenges can easily overwhelm us. Our first impulse is often to pull inward, to avert our eyes, to grow mistrustful and protective of our own, to compromise our ideals, to settle rather than to strive. We do so not only in our national life but in our personal lives and careers as well.

Yet these times, more than any other, demand that we hold fast to our dreams -- that you pursue your aspirations, that you energize and revitalize this world, that you take responsibility not only for your own future but for the future that belongs to us all. At the end of the 18th century, a generation of young revolutionaries founded the American republic and established this University, each as part of a grand experiment designed, in the words of Thomas Paine, "to begin the world anew." In the mid 19th century, another generation of young men and women led the battle to abolish slavery and to heal the union after a fratricidal war. Young people of your grandparents' generation defeated fascism. And in your parents' time, the young made the Civil Rights Movement and proffered the radical notion that men and women come into this world with equal ability and should therefore make their way through it with equal opportunity.

Now, it is your turn. The writer Norman Cousins once observed that there are two types of people in this world. There are those who look at great challenges and answer, no, it isn't possible. And there are those who look at the same challenges, see in them hope and possibility, and answer that none of us knows enough to be pessimistic. Count yourself among the latter. Hold fast to your dreams, strive for excellence in all that you do, and ask yourself daily where, with this one life, do you wish to leave your mark. Start your businesses; write your books; turn your ideas into new inventions, new and better ways of doing whatever work you choose. Fill the world with art and music; involve yourself in the life of your community; raise families that reflect who you are and the ideals that you hold closest to your heart. The going will not always be easy. Even so, I urge you to persist -- remembering all the while that failure is often the handmaiden to success, and that the future is your responsibility.

Remember your roots
As you make your way in the world, let me also ask that you remember where you came from and that you reflect on what it means to have been educated at a public university. Let me say that again, so that it's clear where I place the emphasis: I ask that you reflect on what it means to have been educated at a public university.

You and your families have worked hard for a Carolina education. You sacrificed, you worked summer jobs and sometimes year-round, and you took on debt that you will be repaying for years to come. All so that you could afford tuition, books and a Carolina meal plan.

Many others whom you have never met sacrificed as well. Look around this gathering. These people, too, invested in your education. As did millions of other North Carolinians -- rich and poor, from both North Carolinas -- whose taxes support the work that you and I do here. The vast majority of them have never been to Chapel Hill, and in many cases their children will not come here either. Even so, they pay their share -- because they love their University, and because they believe in you. You are indebted to those men and women, who ask not that you pay them back, but that you pay forward by living a purposeful and engaged life.

This is indeed the people's University. Its charge to you was first articulated two hundred years ago at its founding. In 1789, this place was a backwater, a tiny wooded encampment on the margins of the Atlantic world. Even so, its founders held to the values of an enlightened and revolutionary age. They dreamed of a republic -- a new social order governed by its citizens rather than a monarch and an hereditary aristocracy. And they recognized that this radical experiment in political and social life required a new form of education -- a public university -- and an equally new conception of education's value.

The founders expressed their ideals eloquently in the University's charter. This institution was established, in the words of that document, to "consult the happiness of a rising generation, and . . . to fit them for an honorable discharge of the social duties of life, by paying strictest attention to their education."

Those simple words offer a profound insight into the human condition. Our happiness is not merely a private emotion. It derives instead from engagement with others. Happiness is found in the social rituals of our lives: ceremonies such as this commencement, a marriage, the birth of a child, even a funeral's celebration of life. Happiness is found in the simple, intimate gestures that bind us to one another: the touch of a partner's hand, a child's smile, the love of learning that joins student and teacher.

The social good
So, too, with education. Education is surely the key to individual opportunity -- indeed, we often think of it in those terms and those terms alone -- but it is also more than that. This public university was founded on the notion that education is just as much a social good -- that the betterment of one life can make better the lives of us all. This is the people's University, and you are the beneficiaries of its founding vision. You have been afforded here a privilege available to only a tiny fraction of a percentage of the world's population. What will you make of that gift?

Edward Kidder Graham posed that same question nearly a century ago in a remarkable speech that he entitled "The College and Human Need." Edward Kidder Graham -- not to be confused with his more famous cousin Frank Porter Graham -- was Carolina's 8th president. He served from 1914 to 1919, when he was struck down by the great Spanish Influenza epidemic that followed World War I. In the autumn of 1915, he looked out on an audience of first-year students and asked why they had come to Chapel Hill. His listeners must have thought that a most curious question, but he pressed on. Had they come to prepare for a career in business, medicine or law? Had they come to win fame as a sports hero? Had they come to excel in the classroom and to claim a Phi Beta Kappa key? If the answer to either of those questions was `yes' and nothing more, then they all, Graham suggested, might consider packing their bags and returning home. Those were all admirable goals, but they were, in Graham's judgment, overly modest and incomplete. The higher purpose of a university education, Graham told his audience, was to develop what he called an "intellectual way of life" -- one that was restless, always questioning, open to seeing the world in new ways. It was that habit of mind, Graham argued, that would ultimately guarantee individual success and would at the same time make students -- make you -- into leaders capable of leaving their world better than they found it.

I can say it no better. To me, this idea defines the very core of the University's mission. I ask that you hold it close in mind, and that now and then, perhaps during a quiet moment at the end of a busy day, you stop to reflect on its meaning for your own life's work.

Now, permit me one final request. As you leave this place and make your way in the world, don't become a stranger. Thomas Wolfe may have been, as he was often quick to remind his classmates, a genius -- one of Carolina's great gifts to the literary world. But he was wrong about one thing: you can come home again. Your parents may disagree -- they already have plans for your room -- but I ask not only that you come home, but that you come home often.

I tell my students that being a university professor is surely one of the most rewarding jobs anyone could have. We spend our days with you, pursuing ideas, admiring your potential, watching you grow and mature -- then you leave. And most often, we never know what became of those encounters we remember so fondly, those heated discussions, those flashes of brilliance. Come home, share with us your triumphs -- and your failures. Teach us from your experiences and nurture this institution, so that we might better prepare the way for the generations who follow. You will always be welcome in this place, you will always find family here.

Go and prosper. You are our inspiration and our hope. I wish you peace, love and the happiness of an engaged and fruitful life. Once again, I congratulate you -- and I thank you from a very special place in my heart. Hark the sound.

Expert on Russia finds people friendly, history complex in former Soviet Union

One of the genuine pleasures of Donald Raleigh's professional life is introducing students and others to a Russia far different than what they expected.

"I had an undergraduate in my office the other day who visited there this year, and he said he was not prepared for how much Russians liked Americans and how much he liked them," said Raleigh, professor of history. "He found them much more compatible and like Americans than people in several West European countries.

"When I've taken students and adult groups to Russia, which I've done since 1979, I'm always impressed that people come back and say `Wow! They really like us!' which they didn't expect."

Even if he didn't admit it directly, it would still be obvious from his passport that Raleigh thinks fondly of the Russian people himself.

After all, the historian, who is one of the non-native world experts on their nation, has visited the Soviet Union and now Russia 28 times.

For the past 12 years, he traveled there every summer to work on an unprecedented book. That work, "Experiencing Russia's Civil War," relies on a massive amount of untapped archives from Saratov, a city on the Volga River off-limits to Westerners for decades, and surrounding towns. It offers the first in-depth look at the Civil War's effects outside Moscow.

Princeton University Press just published the book, which Raleigh believes is the first "total history" of the Russian conflict from a local perspective, one that covers not only politics and society, but also broader cultural codes that determine people's behavior.

"For instance, I give a lot of attention to language and how the Bolsheviks used language publicly and privately," he said.

Like the violent repression they employed, that sophisticated use of language -- white-washed for public consumption and straight for police and other agencies -- at first served them well enough to help maintain their power, the historian said. Ultimately, however, it betrayed them by undermining Russians' faith in the "system" and fostering a kind of passive resistance that guaranteed inefficiency and eventual failure.

Underscoring the importance of the Civil War for later Soviet history, Raleigh argues that many of the features associated with the Stalinist 1930s were not only practiced during the Civil War, but also were embedded. That is, he sees few alternatives for a non-Stalinist outcome to the course that Soviet history ultimately took. Bolshevik ideology strongly influenced the Soviet Union's history after the Russian Civil War, he said, but other key factors that shaped the emerging one-party state included Russian political culture, chance and the wrenching effects of World War I.

"The Civil War was not only a formative experience, but also the defining one for the Soviet political system," Raleigh said.

The author also demonstrates extensive mass opposition to Bolshevik rule by the Civil War's end. The reason the conflict did not continue, he argues, is that the Bolsheviks introduced concessions. Yet another reason, too often ignored by historians, is the role famine played in keeping the Bolsheviks in power.

"If you're truly starving, you don't have a lot of energy to consider any political opposition. Raleigh is deeply involved in his next book project, an oral history of Soviet baby boomers, which will tap his extensive in-country experience."

"I have seen some extraordinary changes in Russia over the years that have amazed me," Raleigh said. "Even under the Soviet system the country was beginning to open up in teaspoon-size doses because it had no choice.

"One of the points I will make in my new book is that the system's own success at modernizing, at sending the whole country to school and making it a literate, urban society in and of itself destroyed those conditions which made the communist system possible to begin with."

By the time Gorbachev came to power, a one-party state largely closed to the outside world was no longer tenable, he said.

"As the country has opened up over the past decade, the changes have been absolutely phenomenal," Raleigh said. "I take issue with Western media coverage of what's going on in Russia. The media have exaggerated all the negatives and have been reluctant to consider that a whole new open society is emerging as well. We don't give Russians credit for realizing they have problems or credit for having the talent to solve them."

Obviously, Russia is still Russia and differs from the United States in various ways, he said, but U.S. reporters and others fail to judge it on its own terms and to see the amazing changes, including for the first time a new democratic order and sounder economics. If a person has money, he or she can buy anything there that can be bought in the United States.

The professor said that with the exception of Chechnya, he has become very optimistic about Russia, its economy and its future. It has evolved into a radically different, freer society, and it's in the United States and all other countries' interest to promote stability there.

"Saratov, which was a closed city, is now open, and many of my colleagues at the University there are traveling abroad, and foreigners are visiting now all the time," he said. "They have won all sorts of national and international grants, and they're all on e-mail."

Like his previous books, Raleigh said "Experiencing Russia's Civil War," subtitled "Politics, Society and Revolutionary Culture in Saratov, 1917-1922," will soon be translated into Russian.

Susan Graham Memorial Fountain

Editor's note: ArtiFACTS, an occasional Gazette feature, looks at campus objects classified as historic property -- what they are, how they got here and why they're significant to the University. The piece is written by Anne Douglas, historic property officer.

In 1916 the home of UNC President Edward Kidder Graham and his wife Susan was the hub of campus social life. Susan Williams Moses Graham, the daughter of an educator, earned A.B. and A.M. degrees from Cornell University.

Before her marriage she had taught at Newcomb College in Louisiana and Sweet Briar in Virginia, two highly respected schools for women.

As Mrs. Graham, she encouraged her husband to expand educational opportunities for women in North Carolina. She helped found the Community Club and took particular interest in the wives of farmers who came to town for marketing. One of her projects was to establish a women's lounge above a store on Franklin Street.

When Graham died at 34, leaving behind her husband and young son just three days before Christmas, her friends wanted to create a memorial that echoed her spirit of community service.

For many years a public well and an oak trough near the Methodist church on Franklin Street had provided drinking water for pedestrians and animals. The well was filled in around the turn of the century, and Graham's friends decided to erect a memorial fountain in its place.

Sculptor R. N. Burnam created a double-sided granite fountain that again accommodated both animals and people. The street side, inscribed "To Keep Fresh the Memory of Susan Williams Graham," featured a bas-relief figure of a classically draped woman pouring water from an urn. The campus side was plain, inscribed only with the words "The Waters of Truth Flow Freely, Drink When and Where You May."

Eventually automobiles replaced mules and wagons; Franklin Street was paved; and water to the fountain was turned off. In 1956 the fountain was moved to a corner of Coker Arboretum, near the Episcopal church Susan Graham attended.

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